Key Factors

A variety of methods are used to determine essential duties, tasks and responsibilities.

Comparing the skills possessed by employees with the results of job analysis can greatly assist in workforce planning strategies and restructuring or redesigning jobs to reflect the requirements of the local area and / or University-wide changes.

Task identity

Employees receive more satisfaction from doing a ‘whole’ piece of work. This is likely to happen when the job has a distinct beginning and end which is clearly visible to the employee and others. It is important that employees see the end results of the work they have produced either on their own or as a part of a team.

In creating roles, the overall duties are considered to ensure a reasonable balance of responsibilities and tasks so that the role is appropriately challenging and interesting. The optimum amount of variety will differ from person to person and could depend on the level of the position.


Employees need to feel responsible for a significant part of the work they perform, either individually or as part of a team. Work should be clearly identified enabling employees to see that they are personally responsible for the successes and failures that occur as a result of their own actions. The employee should understand the significance of the work and where it fits into the purpose of the local area and within the University.


This goes hand in hand with responsibility. Employees should have some areas of decision making within the framework of their job. Autonomy means giving more scope to employees to regulate and control their own work.

Work environment

A job should provide a safe and healthy working environment that is free from discrimination and harassment. It is also important to consider the types of work aids and equipment required to perform the role.

Employees need to understand their reporting relationships. For example, who does the position report to, does the role have any direct reports, the location of the position and what hours are required.

It is important to identify who and the level of interaction that is required with key internal and external customers.

Recognition and support

Employees need jobs that contribute to self-respect, particularly through acceptance and recognition by fellow workers and supervisors. Jobs should permit relationships between individuals and encourage team work; otherwise the employee can feel isolated which may result in negative feelings about their work and their work environment.

Outcomes and performance measures

Employees need to know what their particular targets are and how they relate to the overall operation of the local area/unit and the University. This will involve identifying the outcomes required of the position.

The standard of performance also needs to be identified along with performance measures. This feedback will provide employees with an equitable capacity for ongoing learning and advancement.